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In vivo assessment of individual and total proteinuria in zebrafish larvae using the solvatochromic compound ZMB741

Generation of a Transgenic Zebrafish Line for In Vivo Assessment of Hepatic Apoptosis

Patient-Derived Cancer Xenograft Zebrafish Model (PDXZ) for Drug Discovery Screening and Personalized Medicine

Quality Control Protocol for Zebrafish Developmental Toxicity Studies

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tCa2+-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase is activated by poly(L-aspartic acid).


Tanaka T, Ito M, Ohmura T, Hidaka H.
Biochemistry. 1985 Sep 10;24(19):5281-4.


Ca2+-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (Ca2+-PDE) activity was stimulated by poly(L-aspartic acid) but not by poly(L-glutamic acid), poly(L-arginine), poly(L-lysine), and poly(L-proline). This activation was Ca2+ independent and did not further enhance the activation of Ca2+-PDE by Ca2+-calmodulin (CaM). Poly(L-aspartic acid) produced an increase in the Vmax of the phosphodiesterase, associated with a decrease in the apparent Km for the substrate, such being similar to results obtained with Ca2+-CaM. Poly(L-aspartic acid) did not significantly stimulate myosin light chain kinase and other types of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. CaM antagonists such as N-(6-aminohexyl)-5-chloro-1-naphthalenesulfonamide (W-7), trifluoperazine, and chlorpromazine selectively antagonized activation of the enzyme by poly(L-aspartic acid). Kinetic analysis of W-7-induced inhibition of activation of phosphodiesterase by poly(L-aspartic acid) was in a competitive fashion, and the Ki value was 0.19 mM. On the other hand, prenylamine, another type of calmodulin antagonist that binds to CaM at sites different from the W-7 binding sites, did not inhibit the poly(L-aspartic acid)-induced activation of Ca2+-dependent cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase. These results imply that poly(L-aspartic acid) is a calcium-independent activator of Ca2+-dependent phosphodiesterase and that aspartic acids in the CaM molecule may play an important role in the activation of Ca2+-PDE.