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tDownregulation of GSTK1 Is a Common Mechanism Underlying Hypertrophic Cardiomyopathy

                     
2016/06/14

Front. Pharmacol., 14 June 2016
Vol.7@Article162

Shota Sasagawa, Yuhei Nishimura, Shiko Okabe, Soichiro Murakami, Yoshifumi Ashikawa, Mizuki Yuge, Koki Kawaguchi, Reiko Kawase, Ryuji Okamoto, Masaaki Ito and Toshio Tanaka.

Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy (HCM) is characterized by left ventricular hypertrophy and is associated with a number of potential outcomes, including impaired diastolic function, heart failure, and sudden cardiac death. Various etiologies have been described for HCM, including pressure overload and mutations in sarcomeric and non-sarcomeric genes. However, the molecular pathogenesis of HCM remains incompletely understood. In this study, we performed comparative transcriptome analysis to identify dysregulated genes common to five mouse HCM models of differing etiology: (i) mutation of myosin heavy chain 6, (ii) mutation of tropomyosin 1, (iii) expressing human phospholamban on a null background, (iv) knockout of frataxin, and (v) transverse aortic constriction. Gene-by-gene comparison identified five genes dysregulated in all five HCM models. Glutathione S-transferase kappa 1 (Gstk1) was significantly downregulated in the five models, whereas myosin heavy chain 7 (Myh7), connective tissue growth factor (Ctgf), periostin (Postn), and reticulon 4 (Rtn4) were significantly upregulated. Gene ontology comparison revealed that 51 cellular processes were significantly enriched in genes dysregulated in each transcriptome dataset. Among them, six processes (oxidative stress, aging, contraction, developmental process, cell differentiation, and cell proliferation) were related to four of the five genes dysregulated in all HCM models. GSTK1 was related to oxidative stress only, whereas the other four genes were related to all six cell processes except MYH7 for oxidative stress. Gene–gene functional interaction network analysis suggested correlative expression of GSTK1, MYH7, and actin alpha 2 (ACTA2). To investigate the implications of Gstk1 downregulation for cardiac function, we knocked out gstk1 in zebrafish using the clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats/Cas9 system. We found that expression of the zebrafish homologs of MYH7, ACTA2, and actin alpha 1 were increased in the gstk1-knockout zebrafish. In vivo imaging of zebrafish expressing a fluorescent protein in cardiomyocytes showed that gstk1 deletion significantly decreased the end diastolic volume and, to a lesser extent, end systolic volume. These results suggest that downregulation of GSTK1 may be a common mechanism underlying HCM of various etiologies, possibly through increasing oxidative stress and the expression of sarcomere genes.

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Frontiers

PubMed