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Generation of a Transgenic Zebrafish Line for In Vivo Assessment of Hepatic Apoptosis

Patient-Derived Cancer Xenograft Zebrafish Model (PDXZ) for Drug Discovery Screening and Personalized Medicine

Quality Control Protocol for Zebrafish Developmental Toxicity Studies

Gap junction protein beta 4 plays an important role in cardiac function in humans, rodents, and zebrafish

A novel orexin antagonist from a natural plant was discovered using zebrafish behavioural analysis

tIdentification of the regulatory site in smooth muscle calponin that is phosphorylated by protein kinase C.


Nakamura F, Mino T, Yamamoto J, Naka M, Tanaka T.
J Biol Chem. 1993 Mar 25;268(9):6194-201.


F-actin and tropomyosin inhibited the phosphorylation of calponin by protein kinase C, and the phosphorylation reduced the binding of calponin to F-actin and tropomyosin. Labeled phosphate from [gamma-32P]ATP was retained both on the chymotryptic NH2-terminal 22-kDa fragment, which contains the actin-, tropomyosin-, and calmodulin-binding regions, and on the COOH-terminal 12-kDa fragment. Fractionation of tryptic 32P-labeled peptides by high performance liquid chromatography allowed isolation of three phosphopeptides (designated T1, T2, and T3), each of which was located in three repeating amino acid motifs of calponin. Both the relative initial rates and extent of phosphorylation decreased in the order T2 > T3 > T1. Both serine and threonine residues were phosphorylated in T1 (GASQAGMTAPGTK), and only a threonine residue was phosphorylated in T2 (FASQQGMTAYGTR) and in T3 (GASQQGMTVYGLPR). As the 22-kDa fragment contained only T2, the phosphorylation site in T2 appeared to regulate the binding of calponin to F-actin and tropomyosin. The amino acid sequence of T2 indicates that protein kinase C phosphorylates Thr184. Thus Thr184 is the preferred site of phosphorylation and is functionally the most important of the sites phosphorylated by protein kinase C in smooth muscle calponin.