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Quality Control Protocol for Zebrafish Developmental Toxicity Studies

Gap junction protein beta 4 plays an important role in cardiac function in humans, rodents, and zebrafish

A novel orexin antagonist from a natural plant was discovered using zebrafish behavioural analysis

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tIdentification and characterization of isoenzymes of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase in human kidney and heart, and the effects of new cardiotonic agents on these isoenzymes.


Sugioka M, Ito M, Masuoka H, Ichikawa K, Konishi T, Tanaka T, Nakano T.
Naunyn Schmiedebergs Arch Pharmacol. 1994 Sep;350(3):284-93.


The present study was done to identify and characterize the isoenzymes of cyclic nucleotide phosphodiesterase (PDE) and to determine their intracellular distribution in human kidney and heart. The in vitro effects of new cardiotonic agents, namely, NSP-805 (4,5-dihydro-5-methyl-6-[4-[(2-methyl-3-oxo-1-cyclopentenyl)amino] phenyl]-3(2H)-pyridazinone), TZC-5665 (6-[4-[2-[3-(5-chloro-2-cyanophenoxy)-2-hydroxypropylamino]- 2 -methylpropylamino]phenyl]-5-methyl-4,5-dihydro-3(2H)-pyridazinone ) and its metabolites, OPC-18790 ((+/-)-6-[3-(3,4-dimethoxybenzylamino)-2 -hydroxypropoxy]-2-(1H)-quinolinone), MS-857 (4-acetyl-1-methyl-7-(4-pyridyl)-5,6,7,8-tetrahydro-3(2H)-isoquinolinone ) and E-1020 (1,2-dihydro-6-methyl-2-oxo-5-(imidazo[1,2-a]pyridin-6-yl)-3-pyridine carbonitrile hydrochloride monohydrate), on these human PDE isoenzymes were also investigated. PDE isoenzymes were separated from cytosolic and particulate fractions of homogenates of human kidney and heart by DEAE-Sepharose chromatography. PDE isoenzymes were identified by their elution characteristics, substrate specificities, sensitivities to regulation by effectors and by the use of isoenzyme-specific inhibitors. In a cytosolic fraction from kidney, Ca2+/calmodulin-dependent PDE (CaM-PDE), cyclic GMP-stimulated PDE (cGS-PDE), cyclic GMP-inhibited PDE (cGI-PDE) and two forms of cyclic AMP-specific PDE (cAMP-PDE) were resolved. One form of cAMP-PDE (cAMP-PDE alpha), which was eluted at a lower ionic strength than cGI-PDE during DEAE-Sepharose chromatography, was newly recognized in human tissues, though the other form (cAMP-PDE beta), which eluted later than cGI-PDE, had been previously isolated.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)